New Technology in Removing Quinoa Saponins Using Erosion Process

New Technology in Removing Quinoa Saponins Using Erosion Process

Zaenab Alnasan*(1)

(1). Food Technology Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Zaenab Alnasan. E-Mail: zeinalnasan@hotmail.com

Received: 15/03/2021                                 Accepted: 10/04/2021

Abstract

Saponins are mostly found in the outer seed coat of quinoa which called bran which confer the bitter taste when consumed. So saponins must be removed before consumed. Traditionally, saponins are removed by washing the seeds till the foam is removed and the water resulting from washing becomes pure, this method requires long time, great effort, suitable for small quantities, causes very large amounts of water to be wasted, leads to contamination of water with saponins, and the loss of this saponins, which has a high economic value, if it is isolated. Current industrial treatment methods use a combination of corrosion and turbulent water flow to remove the saponins.  Therefore, innovations are being sought globally and locally for removing the bitter taste without using water. Also, the saponins can be collected in a way that achieves good prices in the market, instead of being thrown away. This study addressed the following research question: Is it possible to achieve effective removal of the bran in less than 25 minutes without washing with water? By erosion of the surface layer (bran) of quinoa seeds, and how this will affect the time required for treatment and the amount of water used. A quick and promising environmentally friendly method was found, by separating the bran from the seeds of quinoa for five cultivars (Giza, Q26 FAO, Red Carina, Titicaca, NSL), planted at the research center of Hama, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria, 2019. By using a food processor technology, for five minutes which separates the bran partly from the quinoa seeds, then separates the bran from the seeds with a sieve with holes of less than 0.25 mm in diameter and shakes for 1-2 minutes, and the process is repeated alternately twice until the bran is completely removed, then the seeds are washed with water of the little trace of the remaining saponins. The percentages of bran in the seeds of the five studied cultivars (Giza, Q26 FAO, Red Carina, Titicaca, NSL) were (9.29, 11.88, 8.76, 11.03 and 9.3%), respectively. This process takes a maximum of 25 minutes, and it uses a minimum of water for washing. The dry raw saponins can also be collected in this way. This method can be used at home.

Key words: Quinoa, Giza, Q26 FAO, Red Carina, Titicaca, NSL, Saponin.

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